Development of an energy-dense biscuit suitable for primary school learners for the South African National School Nutrition Programme

Development of an energy-dense biscuit suitable for primary school learners for the South African National School Nutrition Programme

Author: 
Hassanally, Saffia
Publisher: 
Rural Outreach Programme (ROP)
Date published: 
2021
Record type: 
Responsibility: 
Naicker, Ashika, jt. author
Singh, Evonne, jt. author
Journal Title: 
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development
Source: 
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, Vol 21, No. 9, October 2021, pp. 18611-18628
Abstract: 

South Africa has a well-established National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP). Despite rescheduling the mealtime to two hours after the start of the school day to accommodate learners who come to school on an empty stomach, a gap still exists as many children start their learning day with low energy and concentration levels. A cost-effective, energy-dense snack served at the start of the school day can be a solution to sustain learners until the main meal is served. Cross-sectional surveys were used to determine the snack preferences of children and the product development process was used to develop a suitable snack. An energy-dense peanut butter biscuit was developed based on those surveys as well as a scoping review of previous snack studies. The energy-dense developed product provided 1388kJ (61.0%) of energy from fat, 688kJ (30.2%) of energy from carbohydrates and 201kJ (8.8%) of energy from protein per 100g. The biscuit conformed to microbial testing standards. Shelf-life analysis projected a shelf-life of five weeks fresh and five months in food grade packaging. Sensory results showed that there was no significant difference in sensory scores across gender (p=0.691) and age (p=0.706). More of the learners (n=56, 69.1%) found the biscuit to be 'Super good' than the other ratings (p<.0005 when="" compared="" with="" similar="" biscuit="" products="" currently="" on="" the="" market="" it="" was="" found="" that="" developed="" most="" reasonably="" priced.="" has="" potential="" to="" serve="" as="" a="" solution="" hidden="" hunger="" for="" children="" come="" school="" an="" empty="" stomach.="" this="" versatile="" snack="" continuity="" of="" use="" even="" during="" periods="" national="" crisis="" covid-19="" learners="" nutritional="" needs="" may="" be="" vulnerable.="">

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CITATION: Hassanally, Saffia. Development of an energy-dense biscuit suitable for primary school learners for the South African National School Nutrition Programme . : Rural Outreach Programme (ROP) , 2021. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, Vol 21, No. 9, October 2021, pp. 18611-18628 - Available at: http://library.au.int/development-energy-dense-biscuit-suitable-primary-school-learners-south-african-national-school